Trading options for beginners pdf merge
A MySQL database server contains many databases or schemas. Each database consists of one or more tables. A table is made up of columns or fields and rows records. For clarity, they are shown in uppercase. The names or identifiers database names, table names, column names, etc. Hence, it is best to treat identifiers as case-sensitive. A " test " database is provided during installation for your testing.
Let us begin with a simple example - a product sales database. A product sales database typically consists of many tables, e. Let's call our database " southwind " inspired from Microsoft's Northwind Trader trading options for beginners pdf merge database. We shall begin with the first table called " products " with the following columns having data types as indicated and rows:.
For robustness, the SHOW command back-quotes all the identifiers, as illustrated in the above example. The command " USE databaseName " sets a particular database as the default or current database. You can reference a table in the default database using tableName directly. But you need to use the fully-qualified databaseName.
In our example, we have a database named " southwind " with a table named " products ". If we issue " USE southwind " to set southwind as the default database, we can simply call the table as " products ". Otherwise, we need to reference the table as " southwind. To create a table, you need to define all its columns, by providing the columns' nametypeand attributes. Let's create a table " products " in our database " southwind ". We define 5 columns in the table products: NULL is a special value indicating "no value", "unknown value" or "missing value".
In our case, these columns shall have a proper value. We also set the default value of the columns. The column will take on its default value, if no value is specified during the record creation. We set the column productID as the so-called primary key.
Values trading options for beginners pdf merge the primary-key column must be unique. Every table shall contain a primary key. This ensures that trading options for beginners pdf merge row can be distinguished from other rows. You can specify a single column or a set of columns e. An index is build automatically on the primary-key column to facilitate fast search.
Primary key is also used as reference by other tables. Let's fill up trading options for beginners pdf merge " products " table with rows. Take note that strings must be enclosed with a pair of single quotes or double quotes. The most common, important and complex task is to query a database for a subset of data that meets your needs - with the SELECT command.
The ordering of string depends on the so-called collation chosen. Trading options for beginners pdf merge can perform arithmetic operations on numeric fields using arithmetic operators, as tabulated below:. You can also invert a condition using operator NOT.
NULL is a special value, which represent "no value", "missing value" or "unknown value". If several rows have the same value in columnAit will be ordered according to columnBand so on. For strings, the ordering could be case-sensitive or case-insensitive, depending on the so-called character collating sequence used. To continue to the following recordsyou could specify the number of rows to be skipped, followed by the number of rows to be displayed in the LIMIT clause, as follows:.
You could use the keyword AS to define an alias for an identifier such as column name, table name. The alias will be used in displaying the name. It can also be used as reference. Take note that the identifier " Unit Price " contains a blank and must be back-quoted. You can also concatenate a few columns as one e.
There are several ways to add data into the database: The file extension of ". Our example so far involves only one table " products ". A practical database contains many related tables.
If each product has one supplier, and each supplier supplies only one product known as one-to-one relationshipwe can simply add the supplier's data name, address, phone number into the products table. Suppose that each product has one supplier, and a supplier may supply zero or more products known as one-to-many relationship.
Putting the supplier's data into the products table results in duplication of data. Trading options for beginners pdf merge is because one supplier may supply many products, hence, the same supplier's data appear in many rows. This not only wastes the storage but also easily leads to inconsistency as all duplicate data must be updated simultaneously. The situation is even more complicated if one product has many suppliers, and each supplier can supply many products, in a many-to-many relationship.
Suppose that each product has one supplier, and each supplier supplies one or more products. We could create a table called suppliers to store suppliers' data e. We create a column with unique value called supplierID to identify every suppliers. We set supplierID as the primary key for the table suppliers to ensure uniqueness and facilitate fast search.
To relate the suppliers table to the products table, we add a new column into the products table - the supplierID. We then set the supplierID column of the products table as a foreign key references the supplierID column of the suppliers table to ensure the so-called referential integrity. We need to first create the suppliers table, because the products table references the suppliers table. The suppliers table is known as the parent table; while the products table is known as the child table in this relationship.
Next, we shall add a foreign key constraint on the supplierID columns of the products child table to the trading options for beginners pdf merge parent table, to ensure that every supplierID in the products table always refers to a valid supplierID in the suppliers table - this is called referential integrity.
For example, to list the product's name in products table and supplier's name in suppliers tablewe could join the two table via the two common supplierID columns:. In the above query result, two of the columns have the same heading " name ". We could create aliases for heading s. The database diagram is as illustrated. The link indicates a one-to-many relationship between products and suppliers. Suppose that a product has many suppliers; and a supplier supplies many products in a so-called many-to-many relationship.
The above solution breaks. You cannot include the supplierID in the products table, as you cannot determine the number of suppliers, and hence, the number of columns needed trading options for beginners pdf merge the supplierID s.
Similarly, you cannot include the productID in the suppliers table, as you cannot determine the number of products. To resolve this problem, you need to create a new table, known as a junction table or joint tableto provide the linkage. The primary key of the table consists of two columns: This primary key is defined to ensure uniqueness.
Two foreign keys are defined to set the constraint to the two parent tables. Next, remove the supplierID column from the products table. This column was added to establish the one-to-many relationship. It is no longer needed in the many-to-many relationship.
Before this column can be removed, you need to remove the foreign key that builds on this column. To remove a key in MySQL, you need to know its constraint name, which was generated by the system. The database diagram is as follows. Both products and suppliers tables exhibit a one-to-many relationship to the junction table. The many-to-many relationship is supported via the junction table. Trading options for beginners pdf merge that some products have optional data e.
Before we conclude this example, let's run the mysqldump utility program to dump out backup the entire southwind database. You can restore from the backup by running the script either:. In the relational model, a table shall not contain duplicate rows, because that would create ambiguity in retrieval.
To ensure uniqueness, each table should have a column or a set of columnscalled primary keythat uniquely trading options for beginners pdf merge every record of the table. For example, an unique number customerID can be used as the primary key for the customers table; productCode for products table; isbn for books table. A primary key is called a simple key if it is a single column; it is called a composite key if it is made up of several columns.
The primary key is often used to relate to other tables. A foreign key of a child table is trading options for beginners pdf merge to reference the parent table.
Foreign key constraint can be imposed to ensure so-called referential integrity - values in the child table must be valid values in the parent table. We define the foreign key when defining the child table, which references a parent table, as follows:. Indexes or Keys can be created on selected column s to facilitate fast search.
Sometimes not-for-profit trading options for beginners pdf merge want to formally trading options for beginners pdf merge together. This can be because the organisations would be more sustainable and efficient if joined together, or because larger organisations can sometimes find attracting government funding easier.
Before reading on, make sure that you have read our overview Guide to Working With Other Organisations, which can be downloaded from the Working with Others topic page. Often, when two organisations combine, one transfers all its assets to the other and then winds up, or both organisations combine to form a brand new trading options for beginners pdf merge, and then both the old organisations wind up.
For some structures for example incorporated associations there are specific, and more simple, processes which can be used for merging organisations together like the statutory amalgamation process. Due diligence is a process which involves both organisations investigating each other by asking for certain information from each other, then reviewing and analysing that information, often with the assistance of professionals such as lawyers and accountants. Amalgamating is a process which can be used by incorporated associations based in the same state or territory to combine or merge together to create trading options for beginners pdf merge single incorporated association.
The benefit of an amalgamation process is that certain steps usually involved in a merger happen automatically, trading options for beginners pdf merge the process of joining two or more organisations together more simple and less expensive. Where available, the amalgamation process trading options for beginners pdf merge set out in the incorporated associations legislation for each state and territory.
When individual incorporated associations amalgamate, they form a new incorporated association, and the relevant state regulator will cancel the incorporation of the individual associations without needing to wind them up.
If an amalgamation is not available to trading options for beginners pdf merge organisations involved, a merger process can be used. Unlike amalgamations, a merger is not based on a legislative process and is completely customisable. It is likely that organisations will need ongoing legal assistance to help them through the merger process. Firstly, if your organisation is a charity, the best place to look is on the ACNC register.
If your group is a Company Limited by Guarantee a federal not-for-profit structure this will be indicated in the entry as Australian Public Company. It includes information regarding:. The amalgamation link provides basic information about amalgamation and links to the forms for 'Notice of Specials Resolution approving Amalgamation of Incorporated Associations' and 'Application for Amalgamation of Incorporated Associations'.
The amalgamation link provides basic information about amalgamation and a link to the relevant application forms. It includes information regarding: Not-for-profit Law has updated its Western Australian Information Hub resources to reflect this change.
The fact sheet below summarises the amalgamation process under the Associations Incorporation Act SA. There is currently no specific amalgamation process available for incorporated associations in the North Territory. It is an route to achieve an amalgamation-like result for incorporated assoicaitons in the Northern Territory.
NT Department of Business - The Northern Territory Department of Business carries out the oversight of incorporated associations, and this page contains important information for incorporated associations generally and specifically relating to asset transfer, as well as relevant forms.
The fact sheet below summarises the amalgamation process under the Associations Incorporation Act Tas. Legal duties for board and committee members. Volunteers and not-for-profits have rights and obligations that apply to the volunteering relationship. Incorporated not-for-profits have rules or a constitution.
These must be followed, and can only be changed in certain circumstances. Choosing the right legal structure is the most important legal decision your group will make when starting out. In Australia there are different laws in different states, as well as Commonwealth laws that apply in all states.
Subscribe to the monthly Not-for-profit Law Update for information on changes to the law, new resources, events and other sector news. Welcome to the Information Hub. Please select the jurisdictions you are interested in reading about to filter content on this site. Content about Federal laws will display in addition to content about laws for any state or territory selected.
You can change your selection at any time in this panel. Working with other organisations Menu Close menu. Working with other organisations. Not-for-profit Law Legal Training 10 August Not-for-profit Law can deliver tailored training for NFPs in metro, rural and regional locations - perfect for peaks and local councils. Choose from existing modules, or have training developed for your specific needs.
Time for a webinar? We run webinar training on a range of common legal issues faced by community organisations and individuals within them. Back to Working with other organisations. Please change your location to view this page. This page contains content that does not match your current location. Related Pages Important agreements Amalgamations and mergers are important agreements for any organisation considering a merger.
Changing or ending an organisation When merging, all but one merging party needs to wind up unless formally amalgamating under legislation. Amalgamations Amalgamating is a process which can be used by incorporated associations based in the same state or territory to combine or merge together to create a single incorporated association.
Mergers If an amalgamation is not available to the organisations involved, a merger process can be used. Merging with other organisations. Amalgamating or merging incorporated associations. General information about amalgamation and relevant forms. Statutory transfer to effect merger of incorporated associations. Choose a location In Australia there are different laws in different states, as well as Commonwealth laws that apply in all states.
Which state's law would you like to view? Or continue without selecting a location. This will show Victorian, NSW and Commonwealth laws and may result in some repetition or longer pages. Subscribe to the Update Subscribe to the Update Subscribe to the monthly Not-for-profit Law Update for information on changes to the law, new resources, events and other sector news.