Site map binaryoptionsocialscience
Spatial representation of ecosystem services ES is acknowledged as site map binaryoptionsocialscience key footstep for mainstreaming the ES framework into decision making Hauck et al. In the last decade, a range of methods has been proposed for this endeavor see Nelson et al. The first category of methods involves the assessment of multiple ES, where a reduced number of economic value estimates are spatially transferred to other locations Wong et al.
A second category consists of modeling the provision of one or few ES at small scales using ecological production functions Laterra et al. The third category consists of the use of landscape capacity matrices that relate land uses and covers to the provision of ES Burkhard et al.
A fourth and most recent kind is the mapping of social values of ES, a mode of spatially explicit valuation, which stresses social perceptions, values, and priorities over economic and ecological indicators. It is a participatory approach that engages stakeholders, individually or in groups, through the use of different elicitation instruments such as online surveys Sherrouse et al.
Studies may rely on a previous classification of social values, to which participants are referred Sherrouse et al. Or, participants site map binaryoptionsocialscience allowed to freely express values, which are afterwards linked to a bundle of ES by the researcher and spatially represented Raymond et al.
Map outcomes usually site map binaryoptionsocialscience social values as measures of diversity, richness, abundance, and rarity Bryan et al. A central reason for this comes from the disparate ways of conceptualizing, measuring, and mapping social values Kenter et al.
For example, several terms are used to refer to social values such as cultural Darvill and Lindoshared Kenter et al. Furthermore, these terms site map binaryoptionsocialscience applied indistinctly in different site map binaryoptionsocialscience Ives and KendalKenter et al.
For some disciplines contributing site map binaryoptionsocialscience the ES literature and social value assessment sociology and psychologythe term value is used to describe the values of people, also referred to as underlying or held values. Different typologies to classify ES social values have been proposed within the ES literature. Brownproposed 14 types of place-based values, which the author described as an operative form of ES social values. In turn, Site map binaryoptionsocialscience proposed a human value typology based on the notion of the Biophilia hypothesis Wilsonsite map binaryoptionsocialscience asserted a human dependence on nature that extends beyond material and physical sustenance to include aesthetic, intellectual, and spiritual meanings, and is the one used in this study.
Along with this conceptual diversity, social value assessments have used different methods of valuation see Kenter et al. Particularly, mapping of social values is a noneconomic instrumental approach Raymond et al. In synthesis, social value mapping site map binaryoptionsocialscience currently target a range of ES types, a diversity of value concepts, use different techniques, and declare different purposes for their endeavors.
These purposes range from scientific inquiry, e. Recent contributions acknowledge that if social values of ES are to be considered in decision making, gaining conceptual and methodological clarity is essential for their application Kenter et al.
We aimed at contributing to such clarity by qualitatively exploring aspects of the social value mapping process that influence map outcomes and limit their practical use in decision making. We did so by critically analyzing the details of the implementation site map binaryoptionsocialscience a participatory nondeliberative site map binaryoptionsocialscience exercise for a single ES, namely recreation opportunities.
We aimed site map binaryoptionsocialscience answering questions such as what types of social values are expressed and mapped by participants, what these values held for or assigned to, how much do the notion and spatial representation of social values differ across stakeholders, and what factors explain these differences. We hypothesized that map outcomes spatial social values of ES are influenced by aspects of the methodological setting as well as aspects inherent to the stakeholders and the relationship between the two.
Such aspects should be taken into consideration and uncovered if the resulting social value maps are to be of utility for decision making. This is particularly important in countries site map binaryoptionsocialscience developing economies where valuation of ES faces a myriad of methodological, practical, ontological, site map binaryoptionsocialscience, and policy challenges Christie et al. Although social valuation of ES can be highly context-specific, our results provide more general insights that contribute to the improvement of social value mapping assessments.
Site map binaryoptionsocialscience plantations constitute ha 1. Panguipulli has outstanding natural features such as lakes, rivers, waterfalls, volcanoes, snow patches, pristine forests, and hot springs, all of which have granted the municipality a renowned reputation for tourism and made it a top tourist destination.
We defined a stakeholder following Freeman and Reed et al. Fourteen stakeholders were selected making up the following groups: In Chile, the Panguipulli Model Forest was implemented in with the goals of native forest management and conservation, promotion of local economic initiatives, and the implementation of mechanisms to foster associativity among stakeholders http: CEAM is a research center that focuses on nature conservation and local development programs.
Among social representatives, the Parliament of Coz-Coz is an indigenous organization whose mission it is to ensure the fulfillment of ancient rights of indigenous communities. The Community Tourism Association, Puhuincul, is a group of local inhabitants of the Mapuche ethnic group dedicated to small-scale tourism. A were also contacted, but they did not answer the invitation. We decided to evaluate a single cultural ES recreation opportunities instead of a bundle, to delve deeper and achieve a better understanding of the factors that might influence social valuation.
To guide the exercise of mapping social values, two spatial proxies were chosen to represent recreation opportunities: These proxies were selected on the basis that a recreational opportunity is defined as a particular mixture of the natural setting the physical landscape and recreation activities that rely upon the physical as well as the built landscape, e. We used the following definitions, which were explained in simpler terms to the participants: Natural capital was defined as the stock of natural objects and relationships between these objects that are capable of producing a sustainable flow of biophysical resources that sustain both life and the human economy Wackernagel and Rees We did not adopt a particular definition of social value, but we did focus on the distinction between held and assigned values.
We expected both types of values to arise from site map binaryoptionsocialscience interviews. According to Brown site map binaryoptionsocialscience, values belong in three site map binaryoptionsocialscience In the relational realm, value arises from a connection between a subject and an object in a given site map binaryoptionsocialscience context.
In words of Bengston Along with the distinction between held and assigned values, we selected a particular typology to interpret the values expressed by participants, specifically the typology of human values for nature proposed by Kellert Table 1. The elicitation instrument combined an open-ended interview and a mapping exercise, and was based on the works of Raymond site map binaryoptionsocialscience al.
In order to adjust the instrument and the elicitation procedure, a small workshop was held site map binaryoptionsocialscience May of with a total of six participants, who were researchers and students from Universidad Austral de Chile, engaged in research and development projects in Panguipulli. This workshop allowed for several modifications: The final interview was conducted between June and August ofand was registered using paper notes.
It began by presenting the objectives of the research followed by the collection of personal information e. Some of the questions asked were the site map binaryoptionsocialscience Do you acknowledge the administrative limits of the municipality? What proportion of the municipality are you familiar with? Have you carried out recreational activities in the municipality? After this first stage, the definitions of recreational activities and natural capital were given to the interviewees.
Spatial representation of natural capital site map binaryoptionsocialscience recreational activities relied on a printed map of the municipality of The base map also displayed rivers, main road networks, urban areas, names of particular places, and landscape attributes such as lakes, rivers, and volcanoes. For each interview, a sheet of tracing paper Each cell accounted for a real area of 5. Thus, the tracing paper comprised a total of cells distributed in 33 rows and 45 columns Fig.
During the mapping exercise, this tracing paper was placed on top of the base map for site map binaryoptionsocialscience to position marks using markers of different colors.
This exercise was repeated for natural capital and recreational activities leading to two maps per person. Based on previous studies Bryan et al. Only one mark was permitted in each cell of the tracing paper. Every participant was encouraged, but not obligated to assign all the given possibilities. Two valuation questions were asked to participants, leading to two different maps: Site map binaryoptionsocialscience were allowed to express themselves freely about these questions and any other issues that could be of their interest.
The interviewers used the participant observation technique, which is characterized by factors such as open-mindedness, absence of prejudice, interest in learning more about others, and careful observation and listening DeWalt and DeWalt Interviews provided information about the participants such as their experience in the territory and their relationship with it, among other evidence.
The most relevant details of the interviews emerged when the participants looked at the map. This was because the participants responded with site map binaryoptionsocialscience stories, experience from institutions that they represented, and critical thinking about the objective of mapping natural capital and recreational activities in the territory.
GIS analysis complemented the examination of the narratives and was aimed at exploring questions such as the following: These spatial outcomes, along with the narratives, allowed us to infer some response patterns and relate them to specific aspects of the participants or the methodology itself, e.
Nonetheless, it is important to remark that exploring causality was beyond the purpose of the study. First, a binomial database containing all the results for each participant was created and joined to the respective spatial grid from each of the three stakeholder groups we uploaded an excel spreadsheet to the GIS program for each of the three stakeholder groups.
Second, because the three groups had a different number of participants, we transformed standardized the dataso for each group we would site map binaryoptionsocialscience a minimum rate of 0 and a maximum rate of 1. To visualize and analyze the data we created a raw grid map with site map binaryoptionsocialscience cell values. Site map binaryoptionsocialscience cell had a particular standardized value, that is, the ratio between the number of marks given to a particular cell and the sum of all marks given by all participants of every group.
We then separated the cell values in four categories to better display the site map binaryoptionsocialscience within and across groups. A first GIS analysis was intended to explore whether or not there was a site map binaryoptionsocialscience between the positioning of marks for natural capital and recreational activities and particular elements of the physical rivers, volcanoes, and lakes and built landscape road near settlements and settlements. This site map binaryoptionsocialscience relied on proximity rules detailed in Table 2, and aimed at revealing the elements from the map that could act site map binaryoptionsocialscience attractors for mark placement, which in turn could be influenced by the features shown on the base map during the exercise.
In turn, to understand whether the spatial representation of social values as reflected in the placement of marks differed across stakeholders, we calculated measures of centrality and dispersion Mean Weighted Center and Standard Deviational Ellipses, respectively. These measures served the purpose of identifying central tendencies and geographical dispersal of marks placed by each stakeholder group. The Mean Weighted Center of the site map binaryoptionsocialscience was calculated to identify the center of gravity, considering individual weights in a set of points Buzai and Baxendalewhich in this case were the site map binaryoptionsocialscience number of site map binaryoptionsocialscience placed on each cell by the participants.
Standard Deviation Ellipses were generated for natural capital and recreational activities to measure the trend of the marks. The calculation of the standard distance separately in the x site map binaryoptionsocialscience y directions is a common way of measuring the trend for a set of points or areas. These two measures define site map binaryoptionsocialscience axes of an ellipse encompassing the distribution of features.
The ellipse is denoted as the standard deviational ellipse, because the technique calculates the standard deviation of the x co-ordinates and y co-ordinates from the mean center to define the axes of the ellipse Mitchell Both procedures were conducted in ArcGis 9. Planners were all men and had completed university education. Three out of seven resided in the municipality.
All had a large involvement in tourism and site map binaryoptionsocialscience planning at different administrative scales, and were well acquainted with the entire municipality area. The majority had participated in the creation of policies, plans, and programs oriented toward positioning Panguipulli as an important national and international tourist destination.
Their professional training considerably facilitated the mapping exercise. When placing their marks on the map, site map binaryoptionsocialscience professional perspective predominated, although all of them recalled particular recreational experiences in the territory.